It is always recommended to install Python applications in Virtual Environments to avoid conflicts with one another. Pip package manager helps us to install Python applications in an isolated environments, using two tools namely venv and virtualenv. There is also another Python package manager named "Pipenv", which is recommended by Python.org, to install Python applications. Unlike Pip, Pipenv automatically creates virtual environments by default. Meaning - you don't need to manually create virtual environments for your projects anymore. Today, I stumbled upon a similar tool named "Pipx", a free and open source utility that allows you to install and run Python applications in an isolated virtual environments.
Using Pipx, we can easily install thousands of Python applications hosted in PyPI without much hassle. Good thing is you can do everything with regular user permissions. You need not to be "root" user or need not to have "sudo" permissions. It is worth mentioning that Pipx can run a program from temporary environment, without having to install it. This will be handy when you test multiple versions of same program often. The packages installed with Pipx can be listed, upgrade or uninstalled at any time. Pipx is a cross-platform application, so it can run on Linux, Mac OS and Windows.
Install Pipx in Linux
Python 3.6+, Pip and venv module are required to install pipx. Make sure you have installed them as described in the following guide.
Here, venv is needed to create virtual environments.
Next, run the following commands to install Pipx.
$ python3 -m pip install --user pipx
$ python3 -m pipx ensurepath
The default location of pipx's binary is ~/.local/bin. You can override this with the PIPX_BIN_DIR environment variable. If you override PIPX_BIN_DIR, just make sure it is on your path by running userpath append $PIPX_BIN_DIR.
And the default virtual environment location of Pipx is ~/.local/pipx. This can be overridden with the environment variable PIPX_HOME.
Let us go ahead and see how to install Python applications using Pipx.
Install And Run Python Applications In Isolated Environments Using Pipx
Here are few examples to getting started with Pipx.
Install Python packages
To install a Python application, for example cowsay, globally, run:
$ pipx install cowsay
This command will automatically create virtual environments, install the package in it and put the package executable file on your $PATH.
installed package cowsay 2.0.3, Python 3.6.8 These binaries are now globally available - cowsay done! ✨ ? ✨
Let us test newly installed cowsay program:
Here, I have taken the examples from official site. You can install/test any other Python package of your choice.
List Python packages
To list all installed applications using Pipx, run:
$ pipx list
venvs are in /home/sk/.local/pipx/venvs binaries are exposed on your $PATH at /home/sk/.local/bin package cowsay 2.0.3, Python 3.6.8 - cowsay
If you have not installed any packages, you will see the following output:
nothing has been installed with pipx ?
To upgrade a package, simply do:
$ pipx upgrade cowsay
To upgrade all installed packages in one go, use:
$ pipx upgrade-all
To upgrade to latest avaialble version, run:
$ python3 -m pip install --user -U pipx
Run a application from temporary virtual environments
At times, you might want to run a specific python program, but not actually install it.
$ pipx run pycowsay moooo
This command doesn't actually install the given program, but run it from the temporary virtual environment. You can use this command for quickly testing a python application.
You can even run .py files directly as well.
$ pipx run https://gist.githubusercontent.com/cs01/fa721a17a326e551ede048c5088f9e0f/raw/6bdfbb6e9c1132b1c38fdd2f195d4a24c540c324/pipx-demo.py pipx is working!
A package can be uninstalled with command:
$ pipx uninstall cowsay
To remove all installed packages:
$ pipx uninstall-all
To view help section, run:
$ pipx --help
And, that's all. If you're ever looking for a safe, convenient and reliable application to install and run Python applications, Pipx might be a good choice.